NEW YORK, APRIL 27, 1912 No. 29

So far as unionism in coal mining is concerned, Illinois is the star performer of all states in this country. Last year, in compliance with the check-off system in force in that commonwealth, coal operators paid more than $650,000 into the treasury of the mine workers. Practically every one of the 70,000 colliery employees in Illinois is a member of the union. In the anthracite field, where the ‘‘check-off’’ has not heen forced on the operators, a recent report of the U. M. W. of A. showed an enrollment of only 14,000 out of 170,000 hard-coal miners.

It is evident therefore, why the leaders of united labor desire anthracite recognition, such as would be conceded in the proposed check-off system. The difference to them is a matter of increasing their annual income in the hard-coal regions from $130,000 to more than a million and a half. What could they not eventually accomplish if provided such a sum to work with?

The anthracite operators have the Illinois mine owners set before them as an example of what will happem when labor gets the upper hand. Conditions in [linois have become such that John Walker and his lieutenants practically dictate the policy of the industry in that state. Men cannot be discharged, inachinery introduced, nor improved methods inaugur- ated unless the act is labeled with a union endorsement.

Illinois has 850 mines, operated by 260 companies, and it is this condition that has brought about a policy of “every man for himself, and the devil take the lindmost.”” As a result, mine owners have lacked ulity of purpose, and coal mining in that state has wen brought to a deplorable pass. The union is adding to the present burden of the operators little by little, not seeming to realize that by hampering and weak- ning the employer, the laborer himself will fail to prosper. With highest wages and most favorable working conditions, the Illinois miners receive less per vear than do coal hewers in many other fields where the rights and welfare of the men are supposed to be less properly safeguarded.

Unlimited success, therefore, is the danger rock on which the niners’ organization and the labor move- iment as a whole will dash itself to pieces. Human nature is very much the same in the average of man- kind. Just as the good swimmer, glorying in his superb strength and skill, goes furthest from shore wud perishes through overestimating his own power,

experimental ground.

so capitalism through the abuse and misapplication of wealth became top-heavy and tumbled from its apparently safe foundation. In like manner, labor unions are piling success on success, using each victory as a stepping-stone to a new demand, until at last the structure built with so much pride and hope will collapse because the architects bungled the plans and ignored the necessity of observing established economic facts.

No matter what color glasses we look through, everyone must recognize that wages cannot be larger than the product of a man’s labor; in fact, they must always be less than the product—big enough to give the capitalist his due returns and the employer his living profics. When workmen, acting individually or collectively, attempt by force to refute this certain principle of wages, the result can be no more successful than would be an effort to overthrow the law of gravity.

Production will ever be the only true measure of a workman’s pay, and in accord with this idea, the wages-class are entitled to the immediate benefit of every improvement in science and art, every discovery of resources in nature, and every advance in their own industrial character. However, the doctrine of Laissez faire, Which teaches that the spontaneous action of individuals, each seeking his own interest on his own instance, will attain the best results, is mischievous, and only applicable in special cases. Acceptance of such a principle is certain to bar the way to advances in the industrial condition of mankind; in brief, such a rule, like fire or water, is a good servant but a bad master.

In conclusion, therefore, we uphold the unionization of workingmen when they combine to prevent indus- trial degradation, and to better their condition in life, but we deprecate the unwise exercise of great power, such as caused the head of a powerful labor organization to declare in New York this week, that unless the demands of his union be granted, he would shut off the food supply of our greatest city in less than seven days. If labor leaders could only discern that the chief danger to their cause lies in the errors of their own wavs, the future of the wage earner would be brighter and safer than it is today.

Continuing this line of thought, next week we shall deal with compulsory arbitration, and the recent advances made by workingmen in New Zealand, the world’s social

932

COAL AGE

Vol. 1, No. 29

The Sheridan, Wyo. Coal Field

THE CARNEY COAL Co.

The property of the Carney Coal Co. is on the northerly side of Tongue River, embracing 2600 acres of patented land owned by the company and 640 acres of leased land. The Carney bed, as it is locally known, has been developed here to the greatest extent of any point in the district. The mine is opened by two drifts in the river bluffs, about a quarter of a mile apart. The surface plant is one of the most complete in the Sheridan field, comprising two tip- ples, one of which is of steel and con- crete throughout; the other tipple is of frame construction and well equipped. The coal is worked by undercutting with electric chain machines, and broken down io a shale parting which gives a thick- ress of approximately 10 ft. of clean

coal. The plant has a maximum ca-

By Jesse Simmons *

This is the second and con- cluding article describing ope- rations in this field. The Car- ney Coal Co., one of the proper- ties dealt with, has a mine with a capacity of 4000 tons per 8-hour shift. A detailed account of the Acme Coal Co.’s plant will follow at an early date.

*Deadwood, S. D. ning water from a system maintained at the power plant. C. B. Seymour, Car- neyville, Wyo., is general manager. THE Koor MINE. Peter Kooi, of Kooi, Wyo., is the owner

and manager of the property bearing kis name, near the western extremity

main parting, from whence a tail-rope haulage system is used to transport it to the tipple. From the pit mouth jn- ward for a distance of 150 ft. the pitch is 4°¢, and from that point the entr follows the seam on a pitch of about 1.5%. The tail-rope haul is 1500 ft, in length, with a Flory engine for furn- ishing the power.

A Norwalk 24x24-in. compound, 2- stage, air compressor furnishes air for the 7 Herrison punchers which are used for undercutting the coal. Some modifi- cations are now being made, following the adoption of electric power secured from the Sheridan Electric Light & Power Co. The mine has a capacity of 2000 tons per day during the winter, and Mr. Kooi is proud of the fact that he has done this with a total of 102

mine cars.

SURFACE EQUIPMENT AT THE MONARCH MINE, IN THE SHERIDAN DISTRICT

pacity of 4000 tons in an 8-hour day. The mine is worked in 30-room panels, rooms being driven on 45-ft. centers to a length of 300 ft.; electric haulage is used. The camp, known as Carneyville, in- cludes 163 houses, which were con- structed by the company, and are leased to the employees at a nominal rental, a church, store, office building, etc. Every room in the village has electric lights, and every home is supplied with run-

of the Sheridan field, on the southerly side of the Tongue River, two miles west of the Monarch mine. The Mon- arch seam is mined, the bed showing practically the same thf¥ckness as in the Monarch property, which has been de- scribed, and the coal is mined on the same system.

Horses haul the coal from the rooms to the sub-partings, and a Westinghouse 6-ton electric-locomotive takes it to the

THE MopeEL Coat Co.

Between the Acme and Carney mines, the Model Coal Co. is opening and equipping a new property on the Carney seam, the only shaft mine in this portion of the district. The opening is made by a shaft 12x24ft. and 123 ft. deep. The shaft is timbered with 12x12-in. and 10x 10-in. square timbers, backed by 4-in. lagging. In addition a sump 12 ft.

\pril 27, 1912

depth has been put down below the An electric hoist of 100 hp. using -ernating current at 440 volts, will be i to hoist the coal. A 12-ft. Guibal

operated by a 35-hp. alternating rrent motor, will furnish air. Electric,

‘rtwall, chain machines will be used

COAL AGE

Mine water will be

for undercutting. handled with a motor-driven pump. A

re-screening plant will be erected to prepare the smaller sizes of coal, and trackage, scales, etc., for handling 1000 tons per 8-hour day are being instal- led. The transformer house will contain transformers for stepping the power

DODD sanrerreree ae

PUNCHER AIR MACHINE IN THE KOOl

ie

* CoacAe -

MINE

933

down from the line voltage to 440 volts,

and a 1000-kw. motor-generator set, developing a 250-volt current for the mining machines, etc. Power is pur-

chased from the Sheridan Electric Light & Power Company.

The Model Coal Co. is incorporated under the laws of the state of Wyoming. The property is leased under a royalty per ton of coal extracted. The president is Frank W. Smith, Detroit, Mich.; treas- urer, John Peters, Williamsport, Penn.; general manager, Stewart Kennedy, Ca: neyville, Wyo.

THE ACME COAL Co.

The Acme Coal Co. operates two prop- erties, the Nos. 1 and 2 openings, which are on a tract of land near the western edge of the field, and the No. 3 opening, which is at the present time the most northeasterly development in the district; the properties are about three miles apart. Nos. 1 and 2 are operating in the Carney seam, and the No. 3 workings are in the Monarch. No. 3 is a new prop- erty, and a splendid plant is being rapidly completed and put in shape to make an excellent grade of coal for years to come, while the ultimate end of opera- tions at Nos. 1 and 2 can be but a few years distant.

No. 3 is a drift mine, the entry being

made in the northerly bluffs of the Tongue River. The coal is mined by undercutting with Jeffrey mining ma-

chines, of both breast and longwall types, operated by 250-volt direct current. The coal is hauled from the main partings to the yards, which are a quarter of a mile from the pit mouth, by Jeffrey elec- tric-locomotives. Here the cars are picked up by a cable-haul and delivered to a second cable-haul which takes them up an incline approach to the top of the

tipple, 49 ft. above the yard tracks, where they are dumped in a crossover dump.

The coal, dumped from the mine cars, enters a bin with a movable bottom, by

View OF TOWN AND MINE AT CARNEYVILLE,

COAL AGE =2

934

which it is fed to a shaker-screen of 3000 tons per 8-hour day, capacity. This screen has both lateral and longi- tudinal motion—something new to the Sheridan district—and makes a _ very clean product. From this screen coal may be loaded into either open- or box- cars, an Ottumwa loader being used for loading the latter. Covering the screen with steel plates makes it possible to dump mine-run.

The screen has 6-in. circular openings and the product passing over it is the standard lump of the Sheridan district. That portion passing through is either loaded into open cars or carried on a 30-in. belt-conveyor to the re-screeniny plant. This plant contains a revolving screen 24 ft. long and 6 ft. in diameter. For one-half of this length it is sur-

COAL AGE

rounded by a section 7 ft. in diametes. The screen openings are as follows, reckoned from the upper end: 1-in. for the first 12 ft.; 2-in., for 6 ft., and 3%4- in. for the remaining 6 ft. The 12-ft. section of outer screen surrounds the inner section of equal length having 1-in. apertures, and has '»-in. openings. The screen is approximately 65 ft. above the ground, and underneath are bins with a capacity of 500 tons. On this screen are made slack, pea, nut and egg. The latter product is the portion coming from the main tipple which passes over the largest openings in the revolving screen. The entire tipple and re-screening plant is operated by electric motors.

Power is secured from the Sheridan Electric Light & Power Co. whose plant is a few rods away from the tipple. This

Vol. 1, No. 2:

plant is equipped with 3 Heine wate tube boilers having Roney stokers, and Westinghouse Parsons turbines, each ¢: 1250 kw. capacity generating a 230. volt, 60-cycle, 3-phase, alternating cu; rent. The current is stepped up to 22 000 volts for transmission to the cit of Sheridan and surrounding mines. The product from Nos. 1 and 2 mines is dumped over a frame tipple, sit- uated covenient to both openings; both are drift mines. Electric undercutting and electric haulage are used. The plant has a capacity of 1000 tons in 8 hours. Here, also, a well built camp has sprung up to afford accomodation for the employees. A. K. Craig and Ora Dar- nall are the owners of the capital stock of the Acme Coal Co., both making their headquarters at Acme, Wyoming.

Mine Regi

At the mines of the Internationai Coal & Coke Co., at Coleman, Alta., Canada, all the underground men are hired by one person, who, on engaging a man, gives him a slip, directed to the time- keeper, showing his name, occupation and the time at which he is to start work. The timekeeper then registers the new employee in the “Mine Register,” which is required to be kept in accordance with the Canadian coal mines act. The regis- ter at this particular mine is in the form of a louse-leaf ledger, allowing a leaf to each man. When the leaf is filled in, it is inserted in the binder alphabetically. This of the form shown in Fig. 1.

If the workman can write, he is re- quired to sign the form himself and the balance is filled in by the timekeeper. The record is almost self-explanatory. “Dependents” and ‘Dependents’ Address” are recorded for convenience in case of serious accidents and for information re- quired in connection with the workman’s compensation act, which is in force in Alberta.

The employee is next given an alum- inum check with a number on it, called the “identification number.” He is in- structed to carry this check at all times and is told that it will be necessary for him to present it on pay-day before re- ceiving his pay. and to return it on leav- ing the emplov of the company; also that if lost he will be held responsible for it.

When the man leaves the employ of the company, the date of his time slip is marked on the register and the leaf is removed to a separate binder, kept for that purpose. If, at any time, the man should be rehired. the leaf is again in- serted in the “mine register,” and, if possible, the same “identification num- ber” is given him, the date of reémploy- ment being marked on the leaf.

record is

stration and Checking

By W. A. Davidson *

At the Coleman mine of the International Coal & Coke Co., a loose-leaf record is kept of all employees, past and present, and a most satisfactory system of checking the menin and out of the mines has been installed. The

systems,

registration and checking the check board, and methods of operation are here

described in detail.

*Superintendent and mine International Coal & Coke Co., Alta.

manager, Coleman,

The identification numbers are given out in rotation, and are assigned to the outside men as well as those working in- side, but the “pegging-in’ board or check board is used only for the inside men. If

FIG. 1 LEAF FROM MINE REGISTER EMPLOYEES’ REGISTER Date Tdentiicatio; Vo. Name Signature Age Nationality. 2.6.03. Married or single Dependents : Dependents’ address Occupation Mine No. or seam. Where last employed Previous experience Date of time check te-hirec ete ee aoe ae ee em aie, oie eeepc Remarks: PIG.2. DHE

| Time at Which shift Com- menced to be Admitted DATE | to Mine

cK

Time at Which} Shift Com- menced to | Return from

Mine

Worked in Excess of

a “company man,” the new employee al- se is given a brass check with a number, called the “company number.”

CHECKING SYSTEM

In this province, a law, commonly called the eight-hour law, is in force. This limits the hours of work under-

ground to eight hours and makes it com, pulsory to keep a register showing the times of ascent and descent of each shift. It is essential, therefore, to have some good reliatle checking system that will show at all times the number of men in the mine and will record at the comple- tion of a shift the number of men, if any, left in the workings. A system of this kind is of great value, especially in the case of serious accidents, when there is so much confusion and when reliable information is so essential. The form of record in use at the Coleman mine is shown in Fig. 2.

The check board, on which is kept a record of the men at work, is made of l-in. kiln-dried pine, free from all knots or blemishes and straight grained. The accompanying illustration, Fig. 3, shows a part of the board used at Coleman and is almost self-explanatory, but in order to make it as clear as possible a de- scription may be given as follows:

The left side of the board is devoted to keeping track of the No. 2 Seam con- tract miners. The contracts are numbered from 1 to 60, and opposite each number

“EIGHT HOUR” REGISTER

Hours | Cause of Time Being Worked

Time in Excess of Fixed by That Fixed Act by Act 2EMARKS | SIGNATUR!

ares»

————

|

= ik andi

April 27, 1912

-re holes for 10 pegs, which amply pro- de for the men on each contract. \longside the contract numbers on the ard, room is left to tack a small piece celluloid on which can be printed the ‘ocation of each particular contract. When ne working place is finished, the cellu- id can be cleaned off easily and the ew place marked on.

Above each line of holes, a light piece of cardboard, divided into ten parts, is Jipped through three or four common staples. Each division corresponds to a hole on the board, and on this cardboard the men’s names are written. If a man is shifted from one contract to another, this record can easily be changed.

COAL AGE

On the lower left-hand side of the board (not shown in Fig. 3), the same arrangement is followed out for contract miners working in No. 4 seam, and the contract numbers here run from 101 to 160, inclusive. This arrangement is nec- essary because there are two seams be- ing worked, No. 2 and No. 4.

On the right side of the board is kept a record of the company men, the No. 2 men on top and the No. 4 men below. Practically the same system is followed here as for the contract miners, except that the company men are divided into the various classes of inside labor, such as bratticemen, trappers, firebosses, transportation men, trackmen, chute load-

NO.2 SEAM CONTRACTS

{ i | | | |

| | | al

| NO. 2 COMPANY MEN 3 je101 2102 2103 2104 2105 Je 2107 2108 2109 ello o emen oo ° ° ° o + 90 jell } 0 ° > 2 ° P21 jele - - etl ° ° ° ° ° 2141 ce a 6 0 0 ets! ° + ° ° ° ele ° ° ° ° ° ° ° =) ° ° | ° ° ° ° | | ° ° ° ° | | ° ° ° | ° ° ° | ° ° ° | | ° ° ° ° | ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° © ° } ° | ° | | a - ° | |. ° ° | ° ° | | ] 8 l

Fic. 3. CHECK BOARD FOR

UNDERGROUND OPERATIONS Pate

MINING

lim- ber Men

Pit Con. Bosses Miners

Open Link Miners

Pack-

ers

OPERATIONS IN No. 2 SEAM

‘© Qo '

ers, timber packers, laborers and develop- ment men—the latter including all men employed on new work, such as driving rock tunnels, etc., and work chargeable to capital account.

Each hole on this side of the board is given a number (company number). The No. 2 men are all given numbers begin- ning with 2, and the No. 4 men, num- bers beginning with 4. This gives am- ple room for expansion, 1000 numbers for each seam thus being available. A piece of cardboard, bearing the names of the men, is slipped through staples above the holes in the manner previously noted. The number on the board corres- ponds to the number on the company check, which is given to a man when he registers.

CHECKING THE MEN IN AND OuT

When a contract miner enters the mine, he cails his name and contract number and a peg is put in under his name. When he comes out, he calls out the same in- formation and the peg is removed. A company man simply calls his number, es, for instance, 2262; otherwise the pro- cedure is identical.

Some of the advantages of this check- ing board are as follows: When the shift has passed, going out, if any pegs are left in the check board, it becomes known immediately that someone is still in the mine, and the board tells who it is and where he was working. Similarly, when the shift is going on, the board at once shows the absentees and their working places, which can be filled from the “open links.” The working time is trans- ferred directly from the board to the books. All surface men who go into the mine temporarily to do repair work, have their names placed on the board and are

FIG. 4. UNDERGROUND OPERATIONS VENTILATION TRANSPORTATION Com- . ee ber pany or Brat- Chute| ; Horse Track Chute Rock | Help- Labor- Fire tice Trap- Load- Engi- Brake- Driv- Lay- Repairs Miners ers ers Bosses Men pers ers neers men ers ers ivi

oO

ment

Fotal

936

required to check in and out in the same way as underground men, so, as stated before, the board shows at all times the men actually below ground.

In addition to booking the time, a daily record is kept of each shift, showing the number of men employed. This is ob- tained by simply counting the pegs on the board after the shift has passed, and the result is entered on the form shown in Fig. 4. The classification of labor on this sheet is the same as on the board. Such a record is of immense value to the mine manager, as can be understood with- out further explanation.

KEEPING TRACK OF SEVERAL SHIFTS

When twe shifts overlap, as in the case of one shift starting at 7 o’clock and an-

COAL AGE

other at 9 o’clock, a different style of peg is used for each shift. In this particu- lar case it has been found necessary to use only two kinds of pegs. The common brattice nail, along with the ordinary 3- in. spike, cut off somewhat, serve the purpose well enough. The 3-in. spike, being a little brighter and slightly longer than the brattice nail, makes the distinc- tion quite evident. For conditions more complicated, different colored pegs could be. used.

A person standing centrally in front of the board can easily reach all parts of it, and the pegs can be worked quickly, as are the keys of an instrument, so that if all the men of a shift follow one an- other closely, the board can be cleared accurately in two minutes.

Vol. 1, No. 29

At this mine there are two checkine-in stations, No. 1 and No. 2. No. 1 is the main station. Exactly the same sys:.m is followed at Station No. 2 as at No |, but the board is not quite so large, 'e- cause the board at No. 1 includes the reo- ord for No. 2. After the men check in at No. 2, the result is telephoned to No. 1 and their pegs are also put in No. | board. At the end of the shift, No. | station is informed whether or not No. 2 is clear, so that the board at Station No. | covers the whole mine and shows at 2 times the total number of men below ground. This system has been found to be entirely satisfactory, and there is no reason why any number of stations could not be worked in the same way—each reporting to No. 1.

The Jamison Coke Plants,Greensburg

The subject of the utilization of the waste gas from coke ovens has been so much discussed and yet so little com- paratively has arisen from the discussion that it is thought that the following article may be of value to those who still retain the old bee-hive oven methods. There is no question but that the waste- heat boiler has come to stay wherever coke is made in bee-hive ovens and the problem is now what is to be done with the excess heat after all the needs of the colliery as regards power production are provided.

Those who have studied the use of waste heat are convinced that the logic of the situation favors the installation of means to utilize it at least to a degree sufficient to meet the full demands of the colliery where the ccke is made. The sale of excess power is a larger ques- tion. It is to be hoped that some means may be found enabling the operator to sell this power, which costs him nothing except a comparatively small initial out- lay.

JAMISON PLANTS

The Jamison Coal <end Coke Co., John M. Jamison, president, and W. W. Jami- son, vice-president, at their Greensburg operations, mine approximately 2,500,000 tons per annum. They also have large interests in West Virginia, but the mat- ter of this article is confined to a con- sideration of three coke-oven plants cf the following names, locations and equip- ments: No. 1 at Luxor with 401 ovens, No. 2 at Hannastown with 516 ovens and No. 4 at Crabtree with 492 ovens, a total of 1409 ovens. The coal mined is the Pittsburg and runs from 7 ft. 6 in. to 8 ft. thick in this section.

When the coal comes from the mines, all which passes through a 4-in. screen is shipped. The balance is washed after crushing and made into coke. the an- alvses of the materials at the various

StU G>e Kaing ae f llowece stages CDeing as rollows:

By R. Dawson Hall

These plants make only 72- and 96-hour coke. Ovens are now supplying waste gas to two boiler plants. Over 20 horse- power is supplied by each oven and no coal is fed to the boilers even on Mondays. The coke made by the waste-gas ovens is superior to the ordinary bee- hive coke, being free from black butts and a trifle lower in sul- phur.

ANALYSES OF COAL AND COKE

JAMISON PLANTS Vola- tile sul- Mois- Mat- Fixed Ash phur ture ter Carbon Screened coal 7.45 1.28 0.70 32.95 58.90 Washer slack. 10.00 1.40 Washed coa! 7.00 1.30 Cone. ¥.30 0.53 O.id 1.00 SY.U4

It may be noted, though it is a trite observation, that the slack, which at these plants goes to the washer, is not as good as the coal which is shipped to market. This is always the case, the bulk of the impurities being found in the disintegrated coal.

The slack is washed in Stein-Boericke and Luhrig jigs and the cleansed product is discharged into one of two large tanks. These tanks at plant No. 2 are of iron, lined with brickwork, the joints being filled with cement. At the other plants they are of reinforced concrete. They are filled on alternate days. Elevators remove the slack from one tank at a time and empty it into bins for charging into larries.

By this means the washed coal is ren- dered comparatively dry before charging. This drying not only avoids an important waste of heat. but practically extends the coking period one hour and as it resu!ts in the heat of adjacent ovens not being

JAMISON MINE No. 2 HANNASTOWN, PENN.

April 27, 1912

COAL AGE

A Row OF OVENS AT JAMISON MINE No. 2

absorbed unduly by ovens newly charged, ir provides for an oven temperature suitable for the manufacture of the strongest and densest coke. It is proba- ble that some sulphur leaves the coal during the interval of storage, because the water drawn off is quite strongly im- pregnated with sulphuric acid. The pyrites can be entirely robbed of its sulphur by oxidation and solution, whereas the heat of the oven can only drive off 50 per cent. of it. Consequently it would seem that a leaching process, which is not carried far enough to destroy the coking power of the coal, should be ad- vantageous. I have not seen any data on the subject, but it would appear to be a fertile field for investigation. The gen- eralized symbol for pyrites is FenSn+1 and that symbol still remains applicable ifter heating the mineral. The factor n, however, progressively becomes so great that it practically equals n+ 1and Fe S.. after being strongly heated, becomes aa

ro Oo.

FOUNDRY COKE ,

The Jamison plants aim to make othing but foundry coke. Instead of harging each oven every alternate day xcept Sundays and drawing furnace coke four days in the week and foundry coke on Mondays and Tuesdays, each ven is charged but once in three days, ‘nd if Sunday intervenes the coa! re- nains in the oven four days. So all the vens are producing either 72- or 96- lour coke. Three grades are made, A, > and C, the first, A, is No. 1 foundry, 8 is No. 2 foundry and C is furnace coke. There is a large amount of the product sold on a guarantee that the sul- phur content shall be less than 0.90 per cent.

The following are the input and out- put of 72- and 96-hour charges:

CHARGE AND

OUTPUT OF COKE OVENS

Good foundry coke.

Good foundry coke

72-HOUR CHARGE

Per Cent. Per Cent.

) of of Pounds | Charge | Output

15,680} 100.00 132.09 9,52) 60.76 80.27 1,706) 10.88 14.37 636) 4.06 4.356 L1L.S70 Far. 40 100.00

96-HOUR CHARGE

Per Cent lPevcend, of of ?ounds | Charges | Output

| | |

17,655 10).00 130.42

10,330 58.51 49.82 | 2 O44 11.58 15.79 SOS 3.2) 1.39

2,942 tax00 160.00

937

A 96-hour charge stands about 40 in. deep in the oven, and after coking it will be found shrunken to about 28 in. When coal is taken direct from the washer to the ovens, without the delay in the tanks, of which mention has been made, it is two hours before it begins to coke; but as a result of the opportunity the coal has to drain off, the time at the Jamison works is reduced to one hour. The door of the oven, which is only bui!: about half way up to the soffit of the arched opening, is after this hour raised almost to the full height, the bricks being plastered with wet loam to exclude all air, except such as can enter above the coal. This prevents wasteful oxidation o: burning of the charge.

The bricks forming the door are wet, to the full height of the slack bed, due to the dampness of the charge. As cok- ing takes place, the bricks gradually dry, and when the coking reaches the oven floor, the entire door ceases to show evi- dences of moisture. This requires about 36 hours. Such coke, however, is light and weak, and the additional time given the process completes the driving off of the volatile matter and makes a heavier and stronger product. It may be noted that there is a deposit of carbon on those parts of the coke through which the ris- ing gases eScape, and the amount of this deposit varies from 3 to 5 per cent. The ccke ovens at plant No. 1 are not at present in operation, and No. 2, though producing the best of coke, does not em- body all the latest features of coke-mak- ing economy. Steam locomotives are used for hauling the larries to the oven and no use is made of the waste gases. It is the intention, however, to make the coke ovens supply the heat for operating this plant and the change will be made without delay because the test at No. 4 nas shown that the waste-heat coke oven is a gilt-edged investment.

Waste HEAT OVENS AND BOILER House PLANT No. 4

938 COAL AGE Vol. 1, No. 29 Oe ee | Ki j 8 . —= Aire urse Aircourse ~—. =the: v -- Dampers

bee 8” > Sy LGBT hail

Detai

Showing Location of Enlarged

Third Rail,

x

»

aie __ ae \

| a 3g 5 DIT =

rHE

Section of

Part Cross

DETAIL OF WASTE HEAT

OVEN MAKEs 22 HP., ONE MAN OVERSEES 1600 HP.

EACH

At plant No. 4, seventy ovens are sup- plying all the heat needed for the opera- tion of four 400-hp. boilers. In order to shorten the flues leading to these, there are two boiler houses set just back of the line of ovens, each house being con- nected with 35 ovens. By these arrange- ments a more even draft is secured for each oven, than if the boiler houses were combined and set at one end of the long line.

One man attends to all four boilers and watches the fan engine. He does

not have much to occupy him physically or mentally and a high-priced man is not needed. Liberal allowances for interest, depreciation and repair leave a margin of about $20,000 over the coal firing. The cost of installation, including flues, boilers, steam lines, water lines complete, was approximately S250 per oven.

It will be seen that each oven provides about 22 hp. It not thought that the continuous making of foundry coke changes the heat output in any material degree. It is true that the ovens are less frequently charged but, at the same time, larger charges are used and thus the conditions are not so unequal as might at first appear.

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Over Seat EL GIB

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Coal AGE

Section through Small Flue, Airway Underneath

l2"Fa// ane : el I SNR x j 2 = 5 S {> S 7 YU ——— Oven, Tracks and Yards OVENS SHOWINGS FLUES

ANY OVEN SHOULD PRovIDE 20 HP.

An oven operating on the regular cycle, but of like diameter to those at the Jamison plants (12 ft. 6 in.), is charged every week with two chargings of about five tons each. and on Friday or Satur- day with 6'. tons, a total of 16 tons

per week. It will be seen that the amount fed to the ovens at the Jamison plants with a two-charge system is 16°; tons. So that on the whole. there is no reason to believe that the three-charge system with its smaller charging loads will not give almost equivalent results. In fact it has been the experience of the H. C. Frick Coke Co., and the Ellsworth Coal Co., that 20 hp. is to be expected from a single coke oven.

The method of utilizing the waste gases has been developed by several ex- periments during the last few years. The

heated gas is taken from the trunnel- head. This head can be covered by a

large firebrick lid. When this is closed the gas passes through a conduit built on